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Overcoming financial repression

“Financial repression” involves keeping interest rates artificially low while allowing inflation to erode the real value of bonds and cash.

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Highly indebted governments may use financial repression to reduce their debt burdens in the years ahead.

Such policies would make it even harder to earn vital income in your core portfolio.

Financial repression thus calls for a major shift in asset allocation.

If you have excess cash, we urge you to put it to work or risk losing purchasing power.

While we do not advise complete divestment from very low-yielding bonds, we do recommend various substitute strategies involving dividends, capital markets, alternative investments, and select fixed income assets.

Download overcoming financial repression summary report

Findings & Opportunities

Outlook 2021 Findings & Opportunities summary brochure is available in five languages

Outlook 2021 themes

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Outlook 2021
In Outlook 2021, we put forward positive actions for your portfolio in this new economic cycle. We urge you to determine the amount of cash you really need to hold over the coming years and to put the rest to work.
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Unstoppable trends
We present two additional unstoppable trends to which we recommend having exposure for 2021 and beyond.
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Exploiting mean reversion
After the most significant dispersion of asset prices in history, exploiting this mean reversion will be crucial to your portfolio’s return opportunities in 2021.
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Investment
Investments

Global investment opportunities across asset classes via capital markets strategies, discretionary portfolios, and third-party managers.

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Meet the team

Outlook represents some of the best thinking of our experienced team of wealth experts from across Citi Private Bank.

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David Bailin
Global Head of Investments & Chief Investment Officer

David has overall responsibility for Citi Global Wealth Investments, which unifies the Investments teams of the Private Bank and the Consumer Bank worldwide.

As Chief Investment Officer, David ensures the integration of our asset allocation, manager research and portfolio management teams, and offers his perspectives on the markets.

David joined the Private Bank in 2009 as the Global Head of Managed Investments. He designed the architecture of our global managed investments platform, including its Citi Investment Management unit, and our distinctive private equity, real estate, hedge fund and traditional investment teams. He became Global Head of Investments in October of 2017.

Prior to joining Citi, David was Head of Alternative Investment Asset Management for Bank of America Global Wealth and Investment Management, where he was responsible for client alternative investments across private equity, real estate, venture capital and hedge funds. He has been a co-founder of a hedge fund of funds, Martello Investment Management, and a senior executive at two leading hedge funds, John W. Henry and Company and Ellington Management Group.

David holds a BA with honors from Amherst College and an MBA with honors from Harvard Business School.

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Steven Wieting
Chief Investment Strategist and Chief Economist

Steven heads our Global Strategy team which formulates our macro investment views across all regions and asset classes. He chairs our Global Investment Committee, which sets our tactical asset allocation, the basis for discretionary portfolios we manage for clients. 

As Chief Economist, Steven provides detailed macroeconomic analyses to inform portfolio decisions.

Previously, Steven was Head of Economics for US institutional equities at Citi Investment Research. He advised the firm’s institutional and government clients globally on macroeconomic developments, forecasts and policy analysis. 

He was also economic advisor to the Morgan Stanley Smith Barney Global Investment Committee and a voting member of predecessor Asset Allocation Committees at Salomon Smith Barney.

 Steven has a master’s in quantitative economics at Bernard M. Baruch College, City University of New York.

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Iain Armitage
Iain Armitage
Global Head of Capital Markets

Iain Armitage has overall responsibility for our Capital Markets organization, whose asset class specialists provide investment advice and execution services across equity, fixed income, FX and commodity markets. He is based in London.

Iain has worked at Citi for over 25 years and prior to his current role was the Regional Head of Investments for the Private Bank in EMEA.

Before joining the Private Bank in 2012, Iain worked in Global Markets, including roles as Global Head of Commodity Investor Sales, Head of Fixed Income Derivatives Sales in Japan and as a fixed income derivative salesperson in Europe. 

Iain holds a bachelor’s degree in economics from Durham University.

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Daniel G. O’Donnell
Global Head of Citi Investment Management Alternatives

Dan leads a team of professionals in Boston, New York, London and Hong Kong dedicated to identifying key themes across alternative asset classes, and originating opportunities for clients.

Prior to joining Citi, Dan worked for Bank of America’s alternative investment group, focusing on private equity and real estate origination and investment management. Dan also has experience working on all aspects of the underwriting and monitoring process for a wide range of buyout, venture capital, and real estate investments during his career in Bank of America’s principal investing division

Dan holds a bachelor’s degree from Pennsylvania State University and an MBA from the University of Chicago.

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Gregory van Inwegen
Global Head of Quantitative Research and Asset Allocation - Citi Investment Management

Gregory has overall responsibility for quantitative research and asset allocation within Citi Investment Management. He oversees Adaptive Valuation Strategies, our methodology for determining the suitable long-term mix of assets for each client’s portfolio. He also serves as Vice Chairman of the Private Bank’s Global Investment Committee, which sets our tactical asset allocation policy.

Previously, he was chief investment risk officer at Ivy Asset Management, director of research at Rydex Investments and a director at the global research center in Deutsche Asset Management.

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Kris Xippolitos
Senior Portfolio Manager - Citi Investment Management

Kris is a member of the portfolio management teams responsible for taxable fixed income, US munis, and core income, leading the communication of portfolio positioning and performance. He is also a member of the Private Bank’s Global Investment Committee.

Previously, Kris was the Head of Global Fixed Income Strategy within our Private Bank’s Office of the Chief Investment Strategist.

Before joining the Private Bank in 2009, Kris was a portfolio strategist at Smith Barney’s Global Wealth Management division and a product specialist for Citi Capital Markets division at Salomon Smith Barney.

Kris has a bachelor’s in management science and economics from the State University of New York at Cortland.

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Bruce Harris
Head, Global Fixed Income Strategy

Bruce is responsible for providing potential investment opportunities and high conviction ideas for global fixed income markets.

Bruce joined the Private Bank in 2018 as a fixed income product specialist, he provided corporate and sovereign credit investment ideas around North and Latin American issuers. Previously, he was an emerging markets credit analyst at Millennium Partners. He has held roles encompassing credit analysis, structured finance origination, and structured credit trading at Commerzbank, Koch Capital, Enron, and Cargill Financial Services. He started his career as a Latin American bond trader at ING.

Bruce earned a bachelor’s degree at the University of Texas at Austin, and a master’s in international Affairs from Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs.

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Joseph Fiorica
Head of Global Equity Strategy

Joe is responsible for identifying particular equity sectors, and style factors that are driving global indices. He is also a voting member of the Private Bank’s Global Investment Committee.

Before joining Citi, Joe worked at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, where he was a policy analyst in the Fed’s Markets Group.

Joe has a bachelor’s in economics and computer science from Georgetown University and an MBA from NYU Stern School of Business. He is also a CFA charter holder.

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Charlie Reinhard
Head Investment Strategy
North America

Charlie Reinhard is the Investment Strategist for the North America region at the Private Bank.

He is a member of the Office of the Global Chief Investment Strategist and is responsible for identifying investment opportunities and risks in North America across asset classes, as well as representing the Global Investment Committee’s views within the region. He is based in New York.

Before joining the Private Bank in 2017, Charlie was the Chief Portfolio Strategist for New York Life’s MainStay Investments where he led the firm’s investment thought leadership efforts. Previously, Charlie was the Deputy Chief Investment Officer for Morgan Stanley Wealth Management, focusing on investment opportunities and implementation strategies.

Charlie previously heading portfolio strategy and was the Associate Director Research at Neuberger Berman after being the Senior US Equity Strategist at Lehman Brothers.

Charlie has appeared on CNBC, other news broadcasts and in print media. He earned an MBA from New York University’s Stern School of Business and a BS from Carnegie Mellon University.

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Jorge Amato
Head of Investment Strategy
Americas

Based in New York, Jorge leads our Latin America investment strategy team, identifying investment opportunities and risks across asset classes in the region. He is a member of Citi Private Bank’s Global Investment Committee.

Jorge has more than 23 years of investing, trading and research experience in emerging markets. Previously, he was an emerging markets portfolio manager at Millennium Partners, a hedge fund in New York, and before that, Head of Latin America Fixed Income and Credit Derivatives Trading at ING, Espirito Santo and Dresdner. He also served as emerging markets portfolio manager at Cargill Financial Services and as a fixed income analyst at Deutsche Bank.

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Jeffrey Sacks
Head of Investment Strategy
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST & AFRICA

With almost 30 years financial markets experience, Jeffrey leads our strategy team in Europe, Middle East and Africa, providing key insights and asset-class recommendations. He is also a member of our Global Investment Committee, which sets our tactical asset allocation positioning.

Before joining the Private Bank, Jeffrey worked in equity and credit research for Barclays Wealth, and was also an emerging markets fund manager at Merrill Lynch Investment Managers, Baring Asset Management and Schroders Investment Management.

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Ken Peng
Head of Investment Strategy
Asia Pacific

Based in Hong Kong, Ken is responsible for identifying investment opportunities and risks across asset classes throughout the region.

Ken has over 20 years of investment and research experience. Prior to joining the Private Bank, he was Senior China Economist at BNP Paribas. Previously, he worked for Citi Investment Research for 11 years. Based in Beijing and Shanghai, he covered China macro investment themes and Asia regional economics. He started his career in 2000 covering the US economy and markets for Citi Investment Research in New York.

Ken received a bachelor’s from Boston College and an MBA from the New York University Stern School of Business.

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Wietse Nijenhuis
Senior Portfolio Manager - Citi Investment Management

Wietse is co-portfolio manager on both the CIM Global Multi-Thematic and CIM Global Dividend Knights portfolios.

He is also a voting member of the Global Investment Committee, which sets the Private Bank’s tactical asset allocation recommendations.

In his previous role, Wietse oversaw global equity strategy for the Private Bank as part of the  Office of the Chief Investment Strategist.

Before joining Citi, Wietse was Global Equity Strategist at an asset manager in the UAE. Prior to that, Wietse was a sell-side equity strategist with HSBC in London and then in South Africa, with a focus on emerging markets.

Wietse holds bachelor’s in finance from the University of Durham.

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