This Communication is prepared by Citi Private Bank (“CPB”), a business of Citigroup, Inc. (“Citigroup”), which provides its clients access to a broad array of products and services available through Citigroup, its bank and non-bank affiliates worldwide (collectively, “Citi”). Not all products and services are provided by all affiliates, or are available at all locations.
CPB personnel are not research analysts, and the information in this Communication is not intended to constitute “research”, as that term is defined by applicable regulations. Unless otherwise indicated, any reference to a research report or research recommendation is not intended to represent the whole report and is not in itself considered a recommendation or research report.
This Communication is provided for information and discussion purposes only, at the recipient’s request. The recipient should notify CPB immediately should it at any time wish to cease being provided with such information. Unless otherwise indicated, (i) it does not constitute an offer or recommendation to purchase or sell any security, financial instrument or other product or service, or to attract any funding or deposits, and (ii) it does not constitute a solicitation if it is not subject to the rules of the CFTC (but see discussion above regarding communication subject to CFTC rules) and (iii) it is not intended as an official confirmation of any transaction.
Unless otherwise expressly indicated, this Communication does not take into account the investment objectives, risk profile or financial situation of any particular person and as such, investments mentioned in this document may not be suitable for all investors. Citi is not acting as an investment or other advisor, fiduciary or agent. The information contained herein is not intended to be an exhaustive discussion of the strategies or concepts mentioned herein or tax or legal advice. Recipients of this Communication should obtain advice based on their own individual circumstances from their own tax, financial, legal and other advisors about the risks and merits of any transaction before making an investment decision, and only make such decisions on the basis of their own objectives, experience, risk profile and resources.
The information contained in this Communication is based on generally available information and, although obtained from sources believed by Citi to be reliable, its accuracy and completeness cannot be assured, and such information may be incomplete or condensed. Any assumptions or information contained in this Communication constitute a judgment only as of the date of this document or on any specified dates and is subject to change without notice. Insofar as this Communication may contain historical and forward looking information, past performance is neither a guarantee nor an indication of future results, and future results may not meet expectations due to a variety of economic, market and other factors. Further, any projections of potential risk or return are illustrative and should not be taken as limitations of the maximum possible loss or gain. Any prices, values or estimates provided in this Communication (other than those that are identified as being historical) are indicative only, may change without notice and do not represent firm quotes as to either price or size, nor reflect the value Citi may assign a security in its inventory. Forward looking information does not indicate a level at which Citi is prepared to do a trade and may not account for all relevant assumptions and future conditions. Actual conditions may vary substantially from estimates which could have a negative impact on the value of an instrument.
Views, opinions and estimates expressed herein may differ from the opinions expressed by other Citi businesses or affiliates, and are not intended to be a forecast of future events, a guarantee of future results, or investment advice, and are subject to change without notice based on market and other conditions. Citi is under no duty to update this document and accepts no liability for any loss (whether direct, indirect or consequential) that may arise from any use of the information contained in or derived from this Communication.
Investments in financial instruments or other products carry significant risk, including the possible loss of the principal amount invested. Financial instruments or other products denominated in a foreign currency are subject to exchange rate fluctuations, which may have an adverse effect on the price or value of an investment in such products. This Communication does not purport to identify all risks or material considerations which may be associated with entering into any transaction.
Structured products can be highly illiquid and are not suitable for all investors. Additional information can be found in the disclosure documents of the issuer for each respective structured product described herein. Investing in structured products is intended only for experienced and sophisticated investors who are willing and able to bear the high economic risks of such an investment. Investors should carefully review and consider potential risks before investing.
OTC derivative transactions involve risk and are not suitable for all investors. Investment products are not insured, carry no bank or government guarantee and may lose value. Before entering into these transactions, you should: (i) ensure that you have obtained and considered relevant information from independent reliable sources concerning the financial, economic and political conditions of the relevant markets; (ii) determine that you have the necessary knowledge, sophistication and experience in financial, business and investment matters to be able to evaluate the risks involved, and that you are financially able to bear such risks; and (iii) determine, having considered the foregoing points, that capital markets transactions are suitable and appropriate for your financial, tax, business and investment objectives.This material may mention options regulated by the US Securities and Exchange Commission. Before buying or selling options you should obtain and review the current version of the Options Clearing Corporation booklet, Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options. A copy of the booklet can be obtained upon request from Citigroup Global Markets Inc., 390 Greenwich Street, 3rd Floor, New York, NY 10013.
If you buy options, the maximum loss is the premium. If you sell put options, the risk is the entire notional below the strike. If you sell call options, the risk is unlimited. The actual profit or loss from any trade will depend on the price at which the trades are executed. The prices used herein are historical and may not be available when you order is entered. Commissions and other transaction costs are not considered in these examples. Option trades in general and these trades in particular may not be appropriate for every investor. Unless noted otherwise, the source of all graphs and tables in this report is Citi. Because of the importance of tax considerations to all option transactions, the investor considering options should consult with his/her tax advisor as to how their tax situation is affected by the outcome of contemplated options transactions.
None of the financial instruments or other products mentioned in this Communication (unless expressly stated otherwise) is (i) insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other governmental authority, or (ii) deposits or other obligations of, or guaranteed by, Citi or any other insured depository institution.
Citi often acts as an issuer of financial instruments and other products, acts as a market maker and trades as principal in many different financial instruments and other products, and can be expected to perform or seek to perform investment banking and other services for the issuer of such financial instruments or other products. The author of this Communication may have discussed the information contained therein with others within or outside Citi, and the author and/or such other Citi personnel may have already acted on the basis of this information (including by trading for Citi's proprietary accounts or communicating the information contained herein to other customers of Citi). Citi, Citi's personnel (including those with whom the author may have consulted in the preparation of this communication), and other customers of Citi may be long or short the financial instruments or other products referred to in this Communication, may have acquired such positions at prices and market conditions that are no longer available, and may have interests different from or adverse to your interests.
IRS Circular 230 Disclosure: Citi and its employees are not in the business of providing, and do not provide, tax or legal advice to any taxpayer outside Citi. Any statement in this Communication regarding tax matters is not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used or relied upon, by any taxpayer for the purpose of avoiding tax penalties. Any such taxpayer should seek advice based on the taxpayer’s particular circumstances from an independent tax advisor.
Neither Citi nor any of its affiliates can accept responsibility for the tax treatment of any investment product, whether or not the investment is purchased by a trust or company administered by an affiliate of Citi. Citi assumes that, before making any commitment to invest, the investor and (where applicable, its beneficial owners) have taken whatever tax, legal or other advice the investor/beneficial owners consider necessary and have arranged to account for any tax lawfully due on the income or gains arising from any investment product provided by Citi.
This Communication is for the sole and exclusive use of the intended recipients, and may contain information proprietary to Citi which may not be reproduced or circulated in whole or in part without Citi’s prior consent. The manner of circulation and distribution may be restricted by law or regulation in certain countries. Persons who come into possession of this document are required to inform themselves of, and to observe such restrictions. Citi accepts no liability whatsoever for the actions of third parties in this respect. Any unauthorized use, duplication, or disclosure of this document is prohibited by law and may result in prosecution.
Other businesses within Citigroup Inc. and affiliates of Citigroup Inc. may give advice, make recommendations, and take action in the interest of their clients, or for their own accounts, that may differ from the views expressed in this document. All expressions of opinion are current as of the date of this document and are subject to change without notice. Citigroup Inc. is not obligated to provide updates or changes to the information contained in this document.
The expressions of opinion are not intended to be a forecast of future events or a guarantee of future results. Past performance is not a guarantee of future results. Real results may vary.
Although information in this document has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, Citigroup Inc. and its affiliates do not guarantee its accuracy or completeness and accept no liability for any direct or consequential losses arising from its use. Throughout this publication where charts indicate that a third party (parties) is the source, please note that the attributed may refer to the raw data received from such parties. No part of this document may be copied, photocopied or duplicated in any form or by any means, or distributed to any person that is not an employee, officer, director, or authorized agent of the recipient without Citigroup Inc.’s prior written consent.
Citigroup Inc. may act as principal for its own account or as agent for another person in connection with transactions placed by Citigroup Inc. for its clients involving securities that are the subject of this document or future editions of the Quadrant.Bonds are affected by a number of risks, including fluctuations in interest rates, credit risk and prepayment risk. In general, as prevailing interest rates rise, fixed income securities prices will fall. Bonds face credit risk if a decline in an issuer’s credit rating, or creditworthiness, causes a bond’s price to decline. High yield bonds are subject to additional risks such as increased risk of default and greater volatility because of the lower credit quality of the issues. Finally, bonds can be subject to prepayment risk. When interest rates fall, an issuer may choose to borrow money at a lower interest rate, while paying off its previously issued bonds. As a consequence, underlying bonds will lose the interest payments from the investment and will be forced to reinvest in a market where prevailing interest rates are lower than when the initial investment was made.
|Bond credit quality ratings||Rating agencies|
|Credit risk||Moody's1||Standard and Poor's2||Fitch Ratings2|
|High quality (very strong)||Aa||AA||AA|
|Upper medium grade (Strong)||A||A||A|
|Non Investment Grade|
|Lower medium grade (somewhat speculative)||Ba||BB||BB|
|Low grade (speculative)||B||B||B|
|Poor quality (may default)||Caa||CCC||CCC|
|No interest being paid of bankruptcy petition filed||C||D||C|
2 The ratings from AA to CC by Standard and Poor's and Fitch Ratings may be modified by the addition of a plus or a minus to show relative standing within the category.
(MLP’s) - Energy Related MLPs May Exhibit High Volatility. While not historically very volatile, in certain market environments Energy Related MLPS may exhibit high volatility.
Changes in Regulatory or Tax Treatment of Energy Related MLPs. If the IRS changes the current tax treatment of the master limited partnerships included in the Basket of Energy Related MLPs thereby subjecting them to higher rates of taxation, or if other regulatory authorities enact regulations which negatively affect the ability of the master limited partnerships to generate income or distribute dividends to holders of common units, the return on the Notes, if any, could be dramatically reduced. Investment in a basket of Energy Related MLPs may expose the investor to concentration risk due to industry, geographical, political, and regulatory concentration.
Mortgage-backed securities ("MBS"), which include collateralized mortgage obligations ("CMOs"), also referred to as real estate mortgage investment conduits ("REMICs"), may not be suitable for all investors. There is the possibility of early return of principal due to mortgage prepayments, which can reduce expected yield and result in reinvestment risk. Conversely, return of principal may be slower than initial prepayment speed assumptions, extending the average life of the security up to its listed maturity date (also referred to as extension risk).
Additionally, the underlying collateral supporting non-Agency MBS may default on principal and interest payments. In certain cases, this could cause the income stream of the security to decline and result in loss of principal. Further, an insufficient level of credit support may result in a downgrade of a mortgage bond's credit rating and lead to a higher probability of principal loss and increased price volatility. Investments in subordinated MBS involve greater credit risk of default than the senior classes of the same issue. Default risk may be pronounced in cases where the MBS security is secured by, or evidencing an interest in, a relatively small or less diverse pool of underlying mortgage loans.
MBS are also sensitive to interest rate changes which can negatively impact the market value of the security. During times of heightened volatility, MBS can experience greater levels of illiquidity and larger price movements. Price volatility may also occur from other factors including, but not limited to, prepayments, future prepayment expectations, credit concerns, underlying collateral performance and technical changes in the market.
Alternative investments referenced in this report are speculative and entail significant risks that can include losses due to leveraging or other speculative investment practices, lack of liquidity, volatility of returns, restrictions on transferring interests in the fund, potential lack of diversification, absence of information regarding valuations and pricing, complex tax structures and delays in tax reporting, less regulation and higher fees than mutual funds and advisor risk.
Asset allocation does not assure a profit or protect against a loss in declining financial markets.
The indexes are unmanaged. An investor cannot invest directly in an index. They are shown for illustrative purposes only and do not represent the performance of any specific investment. Index returns do not include any expenses, fees or sales charges, which would lower performance.
Past performance is no guarantee of future results.
International investing entails greater risk, as well as greater potential rewards compared to US investing. These risks include political and economic uncertainties of foreign countries as well as the risk of currency fluctuations. These risks are magnified in countries with emerging markets, since these countries may have relatively unstable governments and less established markets and economics.
Investing in smaller companies involves greater risks not associated with investing in more established companies, such as business risk, significant stock price fluctuations and illiquidity.
Factors affecting commodities generally, index components composed of futures contracts on nickel or copper, which are industrial metals, may be subject to a number of additional factors specific to industrial metals that might cause price volatility. These include changes in the level of industrial activity using industrial metals (including the availability of substitutes such as manmade or synthetic substitutes); disruptions in the supply chain, from mining to storage to smelting or refining; adjustments to inventory; variations in production costs, including storage, labor and energy costs; costs associated with regulatory compliance, including environmental regulations; and changes in industrial, government and consumer demand, both in individual consuming nations and internationally. Index components concentrated in futures contracts on agricultural products, including grains, may be subject to a number of additional factors specific to agricultural products that might cause price volatility. These include weather conditions, including floods, drought and freezing conditions; changes in government policies; planting decisions; and changes in demand for agricultural products, both with end users and as inputs into various industries.
The information contained herein is not intended to be an exhaustive discussion of the strategies or concepts mentioned herein or tax or legal advice. Readers interested in the strategies or concepts should consult their tax, legal, or other advisors, as appropriate.
Diversification does not guarantee a profit or protect against loss. Different asset classes present different risks.
Announced in January 2021, Citi Global Wealth (“CGW”) is comprised of the wealth management businesses of Citi Private Bank and Citi’s Global Consumer Bank. Through these businesses, CGW delivers Citi’s wealth solutions, products and services globally. The unified management and delivery of CGW’s wealth strategy represents a further commitment by Citi to become a leading global wealth business. Citi Global Wealth Investments (“CGWI”) is comprised of the Investments and Capital Markets capabilities of Citi Private Bank, Citi Personal Wealth Management and International Personal Bank U.S.
Citi Private Bank and Citi Personal Wealth Management are businesses of Citigroup Inc. (“Citigroup”), which provide clients access to a broad array of products and services available through bank and non-bank afﬁliates of Citigroup. Not all products and services are provided by all afﬁliates or are available at all locations. In the U.S., investment products and services are provided by Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (“CGMI”), member FINRA and SIPC, and Citi Private Advisory, LLC (“Citi Advisory”), member FINRA and SIPC. CGMI accounts are carried by Pershing LLC, member FINRA, NYSE, SIPC. Citi Advisory acts as distributor of certain alternative investment products to clients of Citi Private Bank. Insurance is offered by Citi Personal Wealth Management through Citigroup Life Agency LLC (“CLA”). In California, CLA does business as Citigroup Life Insurance Agency, LLC (license number 0G56746). CGMI, Citi Advisory, CLA and Citibank, N.A. are afﬁliated companies under the common control of Citigroup.
Outside the U.S., investment products and services are provided by other Citigroup afﬁliates. Investment Management services (including portfolio management) are available through CGMI, Citi Advisory, Citibank, N.A. and other afﬁliated advisory businesses. These Citigroup affiliates, including Citi Advisory, will be compensated for the respective investment management, advisory, administrative, distribution and placement services they may provide.
International Personal Bank U.S. (“IPB U.S.”), is a business of Citigroup Inc. (“Citigroup”) which provides its clients access to a broad array of products and services available through Citigroup, its bank and non-bank affiliates worldwide (collectively, “Citi”). Through IPB U.S. prospects and clients have access to the Citigold® Private Client International, Citigold® International, International Personal, Citi Global Executive Preferred, and Citi Global Executive Account Packages. Investment products and services are made available through either Citi Personal Investments International (“CPII”), a business of Citigroup Inc., which offers securities through Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (“CGMI”), member FINRA and SIPC, an investment advisor and broker–dealer registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission; or Citi International Financial Services, LLC (“CIFS”), member FINRA and SIPC, and a broker–dealer registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission that offers investment products and services to non–U.S. citizens, residents, or non–U.S. entities. CGMI and CIFS investment accounts are carried by Pershing LLC, member FINRA, NYSE, and SIPC. Insurance is offered by CPII through Citigroup Life Agency LLC (“CLA”). In California, CLA does business as Citigroup Life Insurance Agency, LLC (license number 0G56746). Citibank N.A., CGMI, CIFS, and CLA are affiliated companies under common control of Citigroup Inc.
For US clients, trust services are provided by one of the following entities: Citibank, N.A.; Citicorp Trust South Dakota; or Citicorp Trust Delaware, N.A.
For clients who are neither residents nor citizens of the US, trust services are provided by one of the following entities: Cititrust Private Trust (Cayman) Limited, Cititrust Private Trust Zurich GmbH, Cititrust (Bahamas) Limited, Cititrust (Cayman) Limited, Cititrust (Jersey) Limited, Cititrust (Singapore) Limited, Cititrust (Switzerland) Limited or Citicorp Trust Delaware, N.A.
Cititrust (Jersey) Limited, whose contact details are P.O. Box 728, 38 Esplanade, St. Helier, Jersey JE4 8ZT, Channel Islands, telephone number + 44 1534 608000 is licensed by the Jersey Financial Services Commission for the conduct of Trust Company Business.
The service providers are referred to collectively as “Citi Trust”. Neither Citigroup nor any of its affiliates provide tax or legal advice.
Citi Trust sponsors the Wealth Transfer Planning and Insurance Referral Program, whereby clients are referred to third party insurance specialist brokers for wealth transfer planning, and life insurance solutions. Brokers who may or may not be locally licensed or authorized in the client’s country of residence, must comply with applicable laws and regulations in the jurisdiction where they conduct an activity. Citi Private Bank does not sell insurance products directly to clients under the Wealth Transfer Planning and Insurance Referral Program.
This document is made available for general guidance only. The information contained herein is not intended to be a comprehensive discussion of legal or tax advice of the strategies or concepts described. Interested clients should consult their tax and/or legal advisors. This document contains a summary of rules and planning techniques that are complex and subject to change. Citigroup companies may compensate their affiliates and representatives for providing products and services to clients.
Citigroup Inc. and its affiliates do not provide tax or legal advice. To the extent that this material or any attachment concerns tax matters, it is not intended to be used and cannot be used by a taxpayer for the purpose of avoiding penalties that may be imposed by law. Any such taxpayer should seek advice based on the taxpayer’s particular circumstances from an independent tax advisor.
Citibank, N.A., Hong Kong / Singapore organised under the laws of U.S.A. with limited liability. This communication is distributed in Hong Kong by Citi Private Bank operating through Citibank N.A., Hong Kong Branch, which is registered in Hong Kong with the Securities and Futures Commission for Type 1 (dealing in securities), Type 4 (advising on securities), Type 6 (advising on corporate finance) and Type 9 (asset management) regulated activities with CE No: (AAP937) or in Singapore by Citi Private Bank operating through Citibank, N.A., Singapore Branch which is regulated by the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Any questions in connection with the contents in this communication should be directed to registered or licensed representatives of the relevant aforementioned entity. The contents of this communication have not been reviewed by any regulatory authority in Hong Kong or any regulatory authority in Singapore. This communication contains confidential and proprietary information and is intended only for recipient in accordance with accredited investors requirements in Singapore (as defined under the Securities and Futures Act (Chapter 289 of Singapore) (the “Act”)) and professional investors requirements in Hong Kong(as defined under the Hong Kong Securities and Futures Ordinance and its subsidiary legislation). For regulated asset management services, any mandate will be entered into only with Citibank, N.A., Hong Kong Branch and/or Citibank, N.A. Singapore Branch, as applicable. Citibank, N.A., Hong Kong Branch or Citibank, N.A., Singapore Branch may sub-delegate all or part of its mandate to another Citigroup affiliate or other branch of Citibank, N.A. Any references to named portfolio managers are for your information only, and this communication shall not be construed to be an offer to enter into any portfolio management mandate with any other Citigroup affiliate or other branch of Citibank, N.A. and, at no time will any other Citigroup affiliate or other branch of Citibank, N.A. or any other Citigroup affiliate enter into a mandate relating to the above portfolio with you. To the extent this communication is provided to clients who are booked and/or managed in Hong Kong: No other statement(s) in this communication shall operate to remove, exclude or restrict any of your rights or obligations of Citibank under applicable laws and regulations. Citibank, N.A., Hong Kong Branch does not intend to rely on any provisions herein which are inconsistent with its obligations under the Code of Conduct for Persons Licensed by or Registered with the Securities and Futures Commission, or which mis-describes the actual services to be provided to you.
Citibank, N.A. is incorporated in the United States of America and its principal regulators are the US Office of the Comptroller of Currency and Federal Reserve under US laws, which differ from Australian laws. Citibank, N.A. does not hold an Australian Financial Services Licence under the Corporations Act 2001 as it enjoys the benefit of an exemption under ASIC Class Order CO 03/1101 (remade as ASIC Corporations (Repeal and Transitional) Instrument 2016/396 and extended by ASIC Corporations (Amendment) Instrument 2021/510)
HONG KONG DEPOSIT PROTECTION SCHEME
The following types of deposit maintained with Citibank N.A., Hong Kong Branch are deposits qualified for protection by the Deposit
Protection Scheme in Hong Kong:
(a) Call Deposits
(b) Current Accounts/ Checking Accounts
(c) Time Deposits with a term of 5 years or less
A time deposit with a term over 5 years, a bearer instrument, a certificate of deposit, a structured deposit (as defined under section 2A in Schedule 1 to the Deposit Protection Scheme Ordinance) and a deposit booked at any other branches or offices of Citibank outside Hong Kong are not protected deposits and are not protected by the Deposit Protection Scheme in Hong Kong.
A deposit booked in an account with Citibank N.A., Hong Kong Branch is not eligible for deposit insurance under the Deposit Insurance and Policy Owners’ Protection Schemes Act 2011 of Singapore, notwithstanding that the Account may be serviced by representatives of Citibank N.A., Singapore Branch.
The following applies to deposits maintained with Citibank, N.A., Singapore Branch:
SINGAPORE DEPOSIT INSURANCE SCHEME
Singapore dollar deposits of non-bank depositors are insured by the Singapore Deposit Insurance Corporation (“SDIC”), for up to S$75,000 in aggregate per depositor per Scheme member by law. Foreign currency deposits, dual currency investments, structured deposits and other investment products are not insured. For more information, please refer to SDIC’s website at www.sdic.org.sg.
The following paragraph is applicable only where the Account is serviced by representatives of Citibank, N.A., Hong Kong Branch:
Where the Account is serviced by representatives of Citibank N.A., Hong Kong Branch, any deposit booked in the Account with Citibank N.A., Singapore Branch is not a protected deposit (as defined in the Deposit Protection Scheme Ordinance (Cap. 581) of the laws of Hong Kong) and is not protected by the Deposit Protection Scheme in Hong Kong.
Citi may offer, issue, distribute or provide other services in relation to certain unsecured financial instruments issued or entered into by BRRD Entities (i.e. EU entities within the scope of Directive 2014/59/EU (the BRRD), including EU credit institutions, certain EU investment firms and / or their EU subsidiaries or parents) (BRRD Financial Instruments).
In various jurisdictions (including, without limitation, the European Union and the United States) national authorities have certain powers to manage and resolve banks, broker dealers and other financial institutions (including, but not limited to, Citi) when they are failing or likely to fail. There is a risk that the use, or anticipated use, of such powers, or the manner in which they are exercised, may materially adversely affect (i) your rights under certain types of unsecured financial instruments (including, without limitation, BRRD Financial Instruments), (ii) the value, volatility or liquidity of certain unsecured financial instruments (including, without limitation, BRRD Financial Instruments) that you hold and / or (iii) the ability of an institution (including, without limitation, a BRRD Entity) to satisfy any liabilities or obligations it has to you. In the event of resolution, the value of BRRD Financial Instruments may be reduced to zero and or liabilities may be converted into ordinary shares or other instruments of ownership for the purposes of stabilisation and loss absorption. The terms of existing BRRD Financial Instruments (e.g., date of maturity or interest rates payable) could be altered and payments could be suspended.
There can be no assurance that the use of any BRRD resolution tools or powers by the BRRD Resolution Authority or the manner in which they are exercised will not materially adversely affect your rights as a holder of BRRD Financial Instruments, the market value of any investment you may have in BRRD Financial Instruments and/or a BRRD Entity’s ability to satisfy any liabilities or obligations it has to you. You may have a right to compensation from the relevant authorities if the exercise of such resolution powers results in less favourable treatment for you than the treatment that you would have received under normal insolvency proceedings. By accepting any services from Citi, you confirm that you are aware of these risks.
In the United Kingdom, Citibank N.A., London Branch (registered branch number BR001018), Citigroup Centre, Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London, E14 5LB, is authorised and regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (USA) and authorised by the Prudential Regulation Authority. Subject to regulation by the Financial Conduct Authority and limited regulation by the Prudential Regulation Authority. Details about the extent of our regulation by the Prudential Regulation Authority are available from us on request. The contact number for Citibank N.A., London Branch is +44 (0)20 7508 8000.
Citibank Europe plc (UK Branch), is a branch of Citibank Europe plc, which is authorised by the European Central Bank and regulated by the Central Bank of Ireland and the European Central Bank (reference number is C26553). Citibank Europe plc (UK Branch) is also authorised by the Prudential Regulation Authority and with deemed variation of permission. Citibank Europe plc (UK Branch) is subject to regulation by the Financial Conduct Authority and limited regulation by the Prudential Regulation Authority. Details of the temporary permissions regime, which allows EEA‐based firms to operate in the UK for a limited period while seeking full authorisation, are available on the FCA’s website. Citibank Europe plc (UK Branch) is registered as a branch in the register of companies for England and Wales with registered branch number BR017844. Its registered address is Citigroup Centre, Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London E14 5LB. VAT No.: GB 429 6256 29. Citibank Europe plc is registered in Ireland with number 132781, with its registered office at 1 North Wall Quay, Dublin 1. Citibank Europe plc is regulated by the Central Bank of Ireland. Ultimately owned by Citigroup Inc., New York, USA.
Citibank Europe plc, Luxembourg Branch is a branch of Citibank Europe plc with trade and companies register number B 200204. It is authorised in Luxembourg and supervised by the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier. It appears on the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier register with company number B00000395. Its business office is at 31, Z.A. Bourmicht, 8070 Bertrange, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Citibank Europe plc is registered in Ireland with company registration number 132781. It is regulated by the Central Bank of Ireland under the reference number C26553 and supervised by the European Central Bank. Its registered office is at 1 North Wall Quay, Dublin 1, Ireland.
In Jersey, this document is communicated by Citibank N.A., Jersey Branch which has its registered address at PO Box 104, 38 Esplanade, St Helier, Jersey JE4 8QB. Citibank N.A., Jersey Branch is regulated by the Jersey Financial Services Commission. Citibank N.A. Jersey Branch is a participant in the Jersey Bank Depositors Compensation Scheme. The Scheme offers protection for eligible deposits of up to £50,000. The maximum total amount of compensation is capped at £100,000,000 in any 5 year period. Full details of the Scheme and banking groups covered are available on the States of Jersey website www.gov.je/dcs, or on request.
In Canada, Citi Private Bank is a division of Citibank Canada, a Schedule II Canadian chartered bank. References herein to Citi Private Bank and its activities in Canada relate solely to Citibank Canada and do not refer to any affiliates or subsidiaries of Citibank Canada operating in Canada. Certain investment products are made available through Citibank Canada Investment Funds Limited (“CCIFL”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Citibank Canada. Investment Products are subject to investment risk, including possible loss of principal amount invested. Investment Products are not insured by the CDIC, FDIC or depository insurance regime of any jurisdiction and are not guaranteed by Citigroup or any affiliate thereof.
Global Consumer Bank (Asia Pacific and EMEA):
“Citi analysts” refer to investment professionals within Citi Research (“CR”), Citi Global Markets Inc. (“CGMI”), Citi Private Bank (“CPB”) and voting members of the Citi Global Investment Committee. Citibank N.A. and its affiliates / subsidiaries provide no independent research or analysis in the substance or preparation of this document.
The information in this document has been obtained from reports issued by CGMI and CPB. Such information is based on sources CGMI and CPB believe to be reliable. CGMI and CPB, however, do not guarantee its accuracy and it may be incomplete or condensed. All opinions and estimates constitute CGMI and CPB's judgment as of the date of the report and are subject to change without notice. This document is for general information purposes only and is not intended as a recommendation or an offer or solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security or currency. No part of this document may be reproduced in any manner without the written consent of Citibank N.A. Information in this document has been prepared without taking account of the objectives, financial situation, or needs of any particular investor. Any person considering an investment should consider the appropriateness of the investment having regard to their objectives, financial situation, or needs, and should seek independent advice on the suitability or otherwise of a particular investment. Investments are not deposits, are not obligations of, or guaranteed or insured by Citibank N.A., Citigroup Inc., or any of their affiliates or subsidiaries, or by any local government or insurance agency, and are subject to investment risk, including the possible loss of the principal amount invested. Investors investing in funds denominated in non-local currency should be aware of the risk of exchange rate fluctuations that may cause a loss of principal. Past performance is not indicative of future performance, prices can go up or down. Investment products are not available to US persons. Investors should be aware that it is his/her responsibility to seek legal and/or tax advice regarding the legal and tax consequences of his/her investment transactions. If an investor changes residence, citizenship, nationality, or place of work, it is his/her responsibility to understand how his/her investment transactions are affected by such change and comply with all applicable laws and regulations as and when such becomes applicable. Citibank does not provide legal and/or tax advice and is not responsible for advising an investor on the laws pertaining to his/her transaction.
Citi Research (CR) is a division of Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (the "Firm"), which does and seeks to do business with companies covered in its research reports. As a result, investors should be aware that the Firm may have a conflict of interest that could affect the objectivity of this report. Investors should consider this report as only a single factor in making their investment decision. For more information, please refer to https://www.citivelocity.com/cvr/eppublic/citi_research_disclosures.
Market Specific Disclosures
Australia: This document is distributed in Australia by Citigroup Pty Limited ABN 88 004 325 080, AFSL No. 238098, Australian credit licence 238098. Any advice is general advice only. It was prepared without taking into account your objectives, financial situation, or needs. Before acting on this advice you should consider if it's appropriate for your particular circumstances. You should also obtain and consider the relevant Product Disclosure Statement and terms and conditions before you make a decision about any financial product, and consider if it’s suitable for your objectives, financial situation, or needs. Investors are advised to obtain independent legal, financial, and taxation advice prior to investing. Past performance is not an indicator of future performance. Investment products are not available to US people and may not be available in all jurisdictions.
Bahrain: This document is distributed in Bahrain by Citibank, N.A., Bahrain. Citibank, N.A., Bahrain, may in its sole and absolute discretion provide various materials relating to the securities for information purposes only. Citibank, N.A., Bahrain is licensed by the Central Bank of Bahrain as a Conventional Retail and Wholesale Bank and is bound by the CBB’s regulations and licensing conditions with regards to products and services provided by Citibank, N.A. Bahrain. These terms are governed by and shall be construed in accordance with the laws of the Kingdom of Bahrain. The Customer irrevocably agrees that the civil courts in the Bahrain shall have non-exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine any suit, action or proceeding and to settle any disputes which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms and Conditions and for such purposes the Customer irrevocably submits to the jurisdiction of such courts. Investment products are not insured by government or governmental agencies. Investment and Treasury products are subject to Investment risk, including possible loss of principal amount invested. Past performance is not indicative of future results: prices can go up or down. Investors investing in investments and/or treasury products denominated in foreign (non-local) currency should be aware of the risk of exchange rate fluctuations that may cause loss of principal when foreign currency is converted to the investors’ home currency. Investment and Treasury products are not available to U.S. persons. All applications for investments and treasury products are subject to Terms and Conditions of the individual investment and Treasury products. Customer understands that it is his/her responsibility to seek legal and/or tax advice regarding the legal and tax consequences of his/her investment transactions. If customer changes residence, citizenship, nationality, or place of work, it is his/her responsibility to understand how his/her investment transactions are affected by such change and comply with all applicable laws and regulations as and when such becomes applicable. Customer understands that Citibank does not provide legal and/or tax advice and are not responsible for advising him/her on the laws pertaining to his/her transaction. Citibank Bahrain does not provide continuous monitoring of existing customer holdings.
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India: This document is distributed in India by Citibank N.A. Investment are subject to market risk including that of loss of principal amounts invested. Products so distributed are not obligations of, or guaranteed by, Citibank and are not bank deposits. Past performance does not guarantee future performance. Investment products cannot be offered to US and Canada Persons. Investors are advised to read and understand the Offer Documents carefully before investing.
Indonesia: This report is made available in Indonesia through Citibank N.A., Indonesia Branch. Citibank N. A., is a bank that is licensed, registered and supervised by the Indonesia Financial Services Authority (OJK).
Korea: This document is distributed in South Korea by Citibank Korea Inc. Investors should be aware that investment products are not guaranteed by the Korea Deposit Insurance Corporation and are subject to investment risk including the possible loss of the principal amount invested. Investment products are not available to US persons.
Malaysia: Investment products are not deposits and are not obligations of, not guaranteed by, and not insured by, Citibank Berhad, Citibank N.A., Citigroup Inc. or any of their affiliates or subsidiaries, or by any government or insurance agency. Investment products are subject to investment risks, including the possible loss of the principal amount invested. These are provided for general information only and are not intended as a recommendation or an offer or solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security or currency or other investment products. Citibank Berhad does not represent the information herein as accurate, true or complete, makes no warranty express or implied regarding it and no liability whatsoever will be accepted by Citibank Berhad, whether in contract, tort or otherwise, for the accuracy or completeness of such information including any error of fact or omission herein which may lead to any direct or consequential loss, damages, costs or expenses arising from any reliance upon or use of the information in the material. The contents of these materials have not been reviewed by the Securities Commission Malaysia.
Philippines: This document is made available in Philippines by Citicorp Financial Services and Insurance Brokerage Phils. Inc, and Citibank N.A. Philippine Branch. Investors should be aware that Investment products are not insured by the Philippine Deposit Insurance Corporation or Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government entity.
Singapore: This report is distributed in Singapore by Citibank Singapore Limited (“CSL”). Investment products are not insured under the provisions of the Deposit Insurance and Policy Owners’ Protection Schemes Act of Singapore and are not eligible for deposit insurance coverage under the Deposit Insurance Scheme.
Thailand: This document contains general information and insights distributed in Thailand by Citigroup and is made available in English language only. Citi does not dictate or solicit investment in any specific securities and similar products. Investment contains certain risk, please study prospectus before investing. Not an obligation of, or guaranteed by, Citibank. Not bank deposits. Subject to investment risks, including possible loss of the principal amount invested. Subject to price fluctuation. Past performance does not guarantee future performance. Not offered to US persons.
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Vietnam: This document is distributed in Vietnam by Citibank, N.A., - Ho Chi Minh City Branch and Citibank, N.A. - Hanoi Branch, licensed foreign bank’s branches regulated by the State Bank of Vietnam. Investment contains certain risk, please study product’s prospectus, relevant disclosures and disclaimers and the terms and conditions for details before investing. Investment products are not offered to US persons.
This document is for information purposes only and does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities to any person in any jurisdiction. The information set out herein may be subject to updating, completion, revision, verification and amendment and such information may change materially.
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